Au total, les chercheurs ont recensé 57 processus qui conduisent à la formation de cristaux. © Thierry Berguerand

Extensive studies describe the origin of every mineral found on earth

This is an unusual study that just appeared in the journal American mineralogist. Researchers have studied this minerals present on structure of the globe …” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/8/4/f/84ff7edce5_123534_terre-apollo8.jpg” data-url=” https ://news.google.com/planete/definitions/structure-earth-earth-4725/” data-more=”Read more”>Earth, with the aim of listing all existing types and their origin. The end result: a Database over 10,500 combinations ofspecies Minerals and formation processes, with more than 6,000 minerals and 57 different processes. Including more than 250 minerals that pre-date and come directly from Earth meteoritesso fragments ofasteroids. “No one has taken on this daunting task beforesaid dr Robert M. Hazen, first author of the study and researcher within the Laboratory earth and planetsin the city of Washington. Every mineral specimen has a story. Everyone tells a story. Each is a time capsule that reveals Earth’s past like nothing else. »

Life in the heart of minerals

After 15 years of research, researchers managed to achieve such a result. To do this, they leveraged existing open access mineral databases, combined with thousands of articles and research on mineralogy. From all this information they have created a gigantic database, the most complete ever obtained, which for the first time takes into account every training process for everyone known mineral. Of all the information they gleaned from it, the importance of water tops the list. In fact, water played an essential role for 80% of mineral species. “This work fundamentally changes our view of the diversity of minerals on the planet, said dr haze For example, more than 80% of the minerals on Earth have been transported by water, which is therefore fundamental to the mineral diversity of this planet. In a broader sense, this explains one of the main reasons why the A moon with a small “L” is a planet’s satellite. For example, Phobos and Deimos are the two moons of the planet Mars.
The moon
The moon with a capital “L” is Earth’s only natural satellite; it probably resulted from a collision 4.4 years ago…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/c/7/8/c785911d64_50034415_lune-05 .jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/universe-lune-2550/” data-more=”Read more”>moon and mercury and even Mars has far fewer mineral species than Earth. »

In addition, the study shows the importance of life beyond water: for about 50% of minerals, biology plays a direct or indirect role in their formation. And in 1,900 species, i.e. almost a third, the mineral was created exclusively through biological processes! “The work also tells us something very profound about the role of biologyadded dr Haze added. A third of the minerals on earth could not have formed without biology: shells, bones and teeth, or This term encompasses a multitude of very different species, be they prokaryotes (bacteria) or eukaryotes (yeast, algae)….” data-image =”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/7/5/1753fd009d_50035172_escherichia-coli-microorganism-ars-wikimedia-03 .jpg” data-url=”https://news .google.com/sante/definitions/biology-micro-organism-6183/” data-more=”Read more”>germs, for example, or the indirect but vital role of biology, such as creating an oxygen-rich atmosphere that resulted in 2,000 minerals that would not otherwise have formed. »

A look into the history of the earth

As the study explains, the earth’s minerals are ultimately markers of the life it contains. Most of them also formed like tiny crystals during the origin of life, during the first 250 million years of our planet 4.4 billion year old zircon. These are the oldest minerals that arose on earth. But others are even older: 296 minerals have been identified as “foreearth,” some of which would be more than 7 billion years old, several billion years older than that solar system.

Finally, in their study, the researchers explain that it all started with So, for example copper (Cu) and the copper ion…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images /midioriginal/7/ 4/d/74d6f5bda2_92001_element-chimie.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chimie-element-chimie-15852/” data-more=”Read more”>chemical elements relatively plentiful, like the general
Symbol: H Atomic number:…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/3/8/8/38807f95a1_50010101_equinoxprom-eit-big.jpg” data-url = “https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-hydrogen-14495/” data-more=”Read more”>hydrogenthe general
Symbol: CNOrdinance: 6Electrons per Energy level: 2.4Atomic mass: 12.011 uMost stable isotopes: 12C stable with six…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/ 2/1 /9/2198868bcb_69707_carbone.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chimie-carbone-3873/” data-more=”Read more”>carbonoxygen or magnesium. They state that the “Significant mineral diversification then occurred via two main processes, first through the gradual selection and concentration of rarer elements through fluid-rock interactions, then through erosion and rusting processes leading to iron oxidation
So, rust – a mixture of iron oxides and hydroxides – is the result of the oxidation of iron.
The term…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/c/3/1c3d919b51_92029_oxidation.jpg” data-url=”https://news. google.com/sciences/definitions/chemistry-oxidation-795/” data-more=”Read more”>oxidation close to the surface biologically determined”.
The arrival of man and the industrial revolution from 1800 onwards contributed to this: more than 600 identified minerals come from ithuman activities, including more than 500 from the mining industry. Finally, 234 of these are exclusively from mine fires in These rocks are fossil fuels formed in the Carboniferous period by the slow transformation of deposited dead organisms, under the action of pressure and… ” data-image=”https: //cdn. futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/5/4/154b1399c3_50035379_charbon-carriere-graissessac-pinpin-wikimedia-gfdl-cc-3.jpg” data- url=”https://news.google.com /planete/definitions/developpement-durable-charbon-6636/” data-more=”Read more”>Money.

At some point, the researchers hope to find outmore detailed history of the earth, especially since its inception, thanks to this gigantic new database. In particular, the geological history: each mineral found is an indicator of the physico-chemical conditions that prevailed at its place of origin. “The remarkable work of Hazen and Morrison offers a potential avenue to predictably discover possible minerals in nature. Minerals may be essential for reconstructing all past life and predicting future life on Earth,” and understanding the evolution of minerals will open a new avenue for us to explore space and search for extraterrestrial life and habitable planets.” , said Anhua Lu, President of the International Mineralogy Association (IMA).

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